Towards Smart Inclusive Cities
Keywords:cities, smart communities, inclusive cities
Cities are rethinking the urban future, following a smart city view towards urban development to drive inclusive urban growth and improve the quality of life, shaping the city as an inclusive community and engine of sustainable growth. A smart city helps shape the city of the future, using the potential of information technology to serve both economic and social life, and transform the urban community in a significant way. Inclusive cities protect the value of a city, thus enhancing community development. Smart inclusive cities help support sustainable urban development, strengthening collaborative and open frameworks within urban communities. Currently, several European cities are selecting a smart city vision to develop the city as an open, innovation-led, socially inclusive community. As smart communities, cities of tomorrow employ information and communication technology (ICT) to drive sustainable, open and inclusive urban growth and innovation, improving the quality of life, strengthening smartness as an ability to develop the city as smart inclusive community. Cities are shaping a smart pathway and building an open and inclusive environment for smart urban community development. The study aims to identify the pathway that cities are following to drive the city as smart, sustainable and inclusive urban community. In the study, exploratory case studies drawn from smart city urban planning are duly discussed concerning three cities that are designing a smart future and thus rethinking a smart inclusive urban development. The three European cities of Wien, Paris and Florence, which are planning a smart urban future, to shape inclusive and open innovative urban communities, are hereby discussed.
Albino, V., Berardi, U., and Dangelico, R.M. (2015), “Smart Cities: Definitions, Dimensions, Performance, and Initiatives”, Journal of Urban Technology, 22 (1): 3–21.
Allwinckle, S., and Cruickshank, P. (2011), “Creating Smart-er Cities: An Overview”, Journal of Urban Technology, 18 (2): 1–16.
Andreani, S., Kalchschmidt, M., Pinto, R., and Sayegh, A. (2019), “Reframing Technologically Enhanced Urban Scenarios: A Design Research Model Towards Human Centered Smart Cities”, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 142: 15–25.
Angelidou, M., Psaltoglou, A., Komninos, N., Kakderi, C., Tsarchopoulos, P., and Panori, A. (2018), “Enhancing Sustainable Urban Development through Smart City Applications”, Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, 9 (2): 146–169.
Angelidou, M. (2014), “Smart City Policies: A Spatial Approach”, Cities, 41: S3-S11.
Angelidou, M. (2017), “The Role of Smart City Characteristics in the Plans of Fifteen Cities”, Journal of Urban Technology, 24 (4): 3–28.
Anttiroiko, A.V., Valkama, P., and Bailey, S.J. (2014), “Smart Cities in the New Service Economy: Building Platforms for Smart Services”, AI & Society, 29 (3): 323–334.
Appio, F.P., Lima, M., and Paroutis, S. (2019), “Understanding Smart Cities: Innovation Ecosystems, Technological Advancements, and Societal Challenges”, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 142: 1–14.
Bătăgan, L. (2011), “Smart Cities and Sustainability Models”, Informatica Economică, 15 (3): 80–87.
Begg, I. (1999), “Cities and Competitiveness”, Urban Studies, 36 (5-6): 795–809.
Blasi, S., Ganzaroli, A., and De Noni, I. (2022), “Smartening Sustainable Development in Cities: Strengthening the Theoretical Linkage between Smart Cities and SDGs”, Sustainable Cities and Society, 80.
Caragliu, A., and Del Bo, C.F. (2019), “Smart Innovative Cities: The Impact of Smart City Policies on Urban Innovation”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 142: 373–383.
Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C.F., and Nijkamp, P. (2011), “Smart Cities in Europe”, Journal of Urban Technology, 8 (2): 65–82.
Castells, M. (2000), “Urban Sustainability in the Information Age”, City, 4 (1): 118–122.
Chang, J.I., Choi, J., An, H., and Chung, H.Y. (2022), “Gendering the Smart City: A Case Study of Sejong City, Korea”, Cities, 120.
Comune di Firenze (2015), Firenze Smart City Plan. Available online at https://ambiente.comune.fi.it/sites/ambiente.comune.fi.it/files/2019-11/Smart_City_Plan_it.pdf (last accessed: November 13, 2021).
Costales, E. (2022), “Identifying Sources of Innovation: Building a Conceptual Framework of the Smart City through a Social Innovation Perspective”, Cities, 120.
Czarniaskwa, B. (2002a), A Tale of Three Cities: Or the Glocalization of City Management, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Czarniawska, B. (2002b), “Remembering While Forgetting: The Role of Automorphism in City Management in Warsaw”, Public Administration Review, 62 (2): 163–173.
Dameri, R. (2013), “Searching for Smart City Definition: A Comprehensive Proposal”, International Journal of Computers & Technology, 11 (5): 2544–2551.
de Hoop, E., Moss, T., Smith, A., and Löffler, E. (2022), “Knowing and Governing Smart Cities: Four Cases of Citizen Engagement with Digital Urbanism”, Urban Governance.
Deakin, M. (2011), “The Embedded Intelligence of Smart Cities”, Intelligent Buildings International, 3 (3): 189–197.
Deakin, M. (2014), “Smart Cities: State-of-the-Art and Governance Challenge”, Triple Helix, 1 (7): 1–16.
Deakin, M., Hirst, P., Hummerstone, E., Webb, S., Karlsson, A.-K., Blin, A.-S., Duff, M., Jordanou, M., and Deakin, M (2012), JESSICA for Smart and Sustainable Cities, European Investment Bank, London: Mazars LLP.
Eger, J.M. (2005), “Smart Communities, Universities, and Globalization: Educating the Workforce for Tomorrow’s Economy”, Metropolitan Universities, 16 (4): 28–38.
European Commission (2017), Report from the Commission to the Council on the Urban Agenda for the EU, COM (2017), 657 final, Brussels: European Commission. Available online at https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/policy/themes/urban/report_urban_agenda2017_en.pdf (last accessed: November 13, 2021).
European Commission (2012) Smart cities and communities – European Innovation Partnership, C (2012) 4701 final, Brussels: European Commission. Available online at https://ec.europa.eu/transparency/documents-register/detail?ref=C(2012)4701 (last accessed: November 13, 2021).
European Commission (2010) EUROPE 2020. A Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, COM (2010) 2020, Brussels: European Commission. Available online at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=celex:52010DC2020 (last accessed: November 13, 2021).
European Union (2011), Cities of Tomorrow: Challenges, Visions, Ways Forward, Brussels: European Commission, Directorate General for Regional Policy.
European Economic and Social Committee (2015), Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on ‘Smart Cities as Drivers for Development of a New European Industrial Policy’, C383/24, Brussels: European Commission.
Fernandez-Anez, V., Fernández-Güell, J.M., and Giffinger, R. (2018), “Smart City Implementation and Discourses: An Integrated Conceptual Model. The Case of Vienna”, Cities, 78: 4–16.
Giffinger, R., Fernery, C., Kramer, H., Kaasen, R., Pichler-Milanović, N., and Meijers, E. (2007), Smart Cities: Ranking of European Medium-Sized Cities, Vienna: Centre of Regional Science (SRF), Vienna University of Technology. Available online at http://www.smart-cities.eu/download/smart_cities_final_report.pdf (last accessed: November 13, 2021).
Gil-Garcia, J.R., Pardo, T.A., and Nam, T. (2015), “What Makes a City Smart? Identifying Core Components and Proposing an Integrative and Comprehensive Conceptualization”, Information Polity, 20 (1): 61–87.
Gil-Garcia, J.R, Pardo, T.A., and Nam, T. (2016), “A Comprehensive View of the 21 Century City: Smartness as Technologies and Innovation in Urban Contexts”, in J.R. Gil-Garcia, T.A. Pardo, and T. Nam (eds), Smarter as the New Urban Agenda: A Comprehensive View of the 21st Century City, pp. 1–21, Cham: Springer.
Hartley, J., Sørensen, E., and Torfing, J. (2013), “Collaborative Innovation: A Viable Alternative to Market Competition and Organizational Entrepreneurship”, Public Administration Review, 73 (6): 821–830.
Hollands, R.G. (2008), “Will the Real Smart City Please Stand Up? Intelligent, Progressive or Entrepreneurial?”, City, 12 (3): 303–320.
Khan, S., and Zaman, A.U. (2018), “Future Cities: Conceptualizing the Future Based on a Critical Examination of Existing Notions of Cities”, Cities, 72: 217–225.
Knight, R.V. (1995), “Knowledge-based Development: Policy and Planning Implications for Cities”, Urban Studies, 32 (2): 225–260.
Knox, H. (2010), “Cities and Organisation: The Information City and Urban Form”, Culture and Organization, 16 (3): 185–195.
Komninos, N., Kakderi, C., Panori, A., and Tsarchopoulos P. (2019), “Smart City Planning from an Evolutionary Perspective”, Journal of Urban Technology, 26 (2): 3–20.
Komninos, N. (2014), “Introduction: The Age of Intelligent Cities”, in Komninos, N., The Age of Intelligent Cities: Smart Environments and Innovation-For-All Strategies, pp. 1–9, London: Routledge.
Kummitha, R.K.R., and Crutzen, N. (2017), “How Do We Understand Smart Cities? An Evolutionary Perspective”, Cities 67: 43–52.
Joss, S., Sengers, F., Schraven, D., Caprotti F., and Dayot, Y. (2019), “The Smart City as Global Discourse: Storylines and Critical Junctures across 27 Cities”, Journal of Urban Technology, 26 (1): 3–34.
Lara, A.P., Da Costa, E.M., Furlan, T.Z., and Yigitcanlar, T. (2016), “Smartness That Matters: Towards a Comprehensive and Human-Centred Characterisation of Smart Cities”, Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market and Complexity, 2 (2): 1–13.
Lazariou. G.C., and Roscia, M. (2012), “Definition Methodology for the Smart Cities Model”, Energy, 47 (1), 326–332.
Lee, J., Babcock, J., Pham, T.S., Bui, T.H., and Kang, M. (2022), “Smart City as a Social Transition Towards Inclusive Development through Technology: A Tale of Four Smart Cities”, International Journal of Urban Sciences, 1–26. DOI: 10.1080/12265934.2022.2074076.
Liang, D., De Jong, M., Schraven, D., and Wang, L. (2021), “Mapping Key Features and Dimensions of the Inclusive City: A Systematic Bibliometric Analysis and Literature Study”, International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 29 (1): 60–79.
Lindskog, H. (2004), “Smart communities initiatives”, In Proceedings of the 3rd ISOneWorld Conference, 16. Available online at http://heldag.com/articles/Smart%20communities%20april%202004.pdf (last accessed: November 13, 2021).
Mairie de Paris (2015), Paris Smart and Sustainable Looking Ahead to 2020 and Beyond. Available online at https://cdn.paris.fr/paris/2020/02/26/f7dc822a66de6000cd910a145c7fca39.ai (last accessed: November 13, 2021).
Malek, J.A., Lim, S.B., and Yigitcanlar, T. (2021), “Social Inclusion Indicators for Building Citizen-Centric Smart Cities: A Systematic Literature Review”, Sustainability, 13: 1–29.
Martin, C.J., Evans, J., and Karvonen, A. (2018), “Smart and Sustainable? Five Tensions in the Visions and Practices of the Smart-Sustainable City in Europe and North America”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 133: 269–278.
Martinez, J., Mikkelsen, C.A., and Phillips, R. (2021), “Introduction: Quality of Life and Sustainability, Socio-spatial, and Multidisciplinary Perspectives”, in J. Martinez, C.A. Mikkelsen, and R. Phillips (eds), Handbook of Quality of Life and Sustainability, pp. 1–14, Cham: Springer.
Meijer, A., and Bolívar, M.P.R. (2016), “Governing the Smart City: A Review of the Literature on Smart Urban Governance”, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 82 (2): 392–408.
Meijer, A.J., and Thaens, M. (2018), “Urban Technological Innovation: Developing and Testing a Sociotechnical Framework for Studying Smart City Projects”, Urban Affairs Review 54 (2): 363–387.
Mora, L., and Bolici, R. (2017), “How to Become a Smart City: Learning from Amsterdam”, in A. Bisello, D. Vettorato, R. Stephens, and P. Elisei (eds), Smart and Sustainable Planning for Cities and Regions, pp. 251–266, Cham: Springer.
Mora, L., Deakin, M., Reid, A., and Angelidou, M. (2019), “How to Overcome the Dichotomous Nature of Smart City Research: Proposed Methodology and Results of a Pilot Study”, Journal of Urban Technology, 26 (2): 89–128.
Nam, T., and Pardo, T.A. (2011a), “Smart City as Urban Innovation with Dimensions of Technology, People and Institutions”, in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, pp. 185–194, ACM.
Nam, T., and Pardo, T.A. (2011b), “Conceptualizing Smart City with Dimensions of Technology, People, and Institutions”, in Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Digital Government Research Conference: Digital Government Innovation in Challenging Times, pp. 282–291, ACM.
Nielsen, B.F., Baer, D., and Lindkvist, C. (2019), “Identifying and Supporting Exploratory and Exploitative Models of Innovation in Municipal Urban Planning; Key Challenges from Seven Norwegian Energy Ambitious Neighborhood Pilots”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 142: 142–153.
Nijkamp, P., and Perrels, A. (1994), Sustainable Cities in Europe, London: Earthscan.
Nilssen, M. (2019), “To the Smart City and Beyond? Developing a Typology of Smart Urban Innovation”, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 142: 98–104.
Odendaal, N. (2021), “Everyday Urbanisms and the Importance of Place: Exploring the Elements of the Emancipatory Smart City”, Urban Studies, 58 (3): 639–654.
Osborne, M., Kearns, P., and Yang, J. (2013), “Learning Cities: Developing Inclusive, Prosperous and Sustainable Urban Communities”, International Review of Education, 59 (4): 409–423.
Palumbo, R., Manesh, M.F., Pellegrini, M.M., Caputo, A., and Flamini, G. (2021), “Organizing a Sustainable Smart Urban Ecosystem: Perspectives and Insights from a Bibliometric Analysis and Literature Review”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 297. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.126622.
Pardo, T.A., Gil-Garcia, J.R., Gascó-Hernández, M., Cook, M.E., and Choi, I. (2021), “Creating Public Value in Cities: A Call for Focus on Context and Capability”, in E. Estevez, T.A. Pardo, and H.J. Scholl (eds), Smart Cities and Smart Governance: Towards the 22nd Century Sustainable City, pp. 119–140, Cham: Springer.
Paskaleva, K.A. (2011), “The Smart City: A Nexus for Open Innovation?”, Intelligent Buildings International, 3 (3): 153–171.
Paskaleva, K.A., and Cooper, I. (2018), “Open Innovation and the Evaluation of Internet-Enabled Public Services in Smart Cities”, Technovation, 78: 4–14.
Peris-Ortiz, M., Bennett, D.R., and Yábar, D.P.B. (2017), “Preface”, in M. Peris-Ortiz, D.R. Bennett, and D.P.B. Yábar (eds), Sustainable Smart Cities: Creating Spaces for Technological, Social and Business Development, pp. ix–xii, Cham: Springer.
Sancino, A., and Hudson, L. (2020), “Leadership in, of, and for Smart Cities: Case Studies from Europe, America, and Australia”, Public Management Review, 22 (5): 701–725.
Sennett, R. (2017), “The Open City”, in T. Haas and H. Westlund (eds), The Post-Urban World: Emergent Transformation of Cities and Regions in the Innovative Global Economy, pp. 97–106, London and New York: Routledge.
Shapiro, J.M. (2006), “Smart Cities: Quality of Life, Productivity and the Growth. Effects of Human Capital”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 88 (2): 324–335.
Shearmur, R. (2012), “Are Cities the Font of Innovation? A Critical Review of the Literature on Cities and Innovation”, Cities, 29: S9–S18.
Sørensen, E., and Törfing, J. (2018), “Co-Initiation of Collaborative Innovation in Urban Spaces”, Urban Affairs Review, 54 (2): 388–418.
Stratigeia, A. (2012), “The Concept of ‘Smart Cities’: Towards Community Development?”, Networks and Communication Studies, 36 (3-4): 375–388.
Stren, R.E., and Polèse, M. (2000), “Understanding the New Sociocultural Dynamics of Cities: Comparative Urban Policy in a Global Context”, in R.E. Stren, and M. Polèse (eds), The Social Sustainability of Cities: Diversity and the Management of Change, pp. 3–38, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
United Nations (2017), The New Urban Agenda, United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III), Quito, Ecuador, October 20, 2016. Available online at https://habitat3.org/the-new-urban-agenda/ (last accessed: November 13, 2021).
United Nations (2015), Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, A/RES/ 70/1, September 25–27, 2015, New York, NY. Available online at https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_70_1_E.pdf (last accessed: November 13, 2021).
Therrien, M.C., Usher, S., and Matyas, D. (2020), “Enabling Strategies and Impeding Factors to Urban Resilience Implementation: A Scoping Review”, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 28 (1): 83–102.
Turnbull, S. (2007), “A Framework for Designing Sustainable Urban Communities”, Kybernetes, 36 (9-10): 1543–1557.
Vallance, P., Tewdwr-Jones, M., and Kempton, L. (2020), “Building Collaborative Platforms for Urban Innovation: Newcastle City Futures as a Quadruple Helix Intermediary”, European Urban and Regional Studies, 27 (4): 325–341.
Vienna City Administration (2014), Smart City Wien Framework Strategy. Available online at https://www.wien.gv.at/stadtentwicklung/studien/pdf/b008384b.pdf (last accessed: November 13, 2021).
Waghmare, M., and Singhal, S. (2022), “Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for Inclusive Smart Cities in India”, Development in Practice, 32 (2): 144–162.
Yigitcanlar, T. (2017), “Smart Cities in the Making”, International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development, 8 (3): 201–205.
Yigitcanlar, T. (2021), “Smart City Beyond Efficiency: Technology-Policy-Community at Play for Sustainable Urban Futures”, Housing Policy Debate, 31 (1): 88–92.
Yigitcanlar, T., and Teriman, S. (2015), “Rethinking Sustainable Urban Development: Towards an Integrated Planning and Development Process”, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 12 (1): 341–352.
Yigitcanlar, T., Dur, F., and Dizdaroglu, D. (2015), “Towards Prosperous Sustainable Cities: A Multiscalar Urban Sustainability Approach”, Habitat International, 45: 36–46.
Yigitcanlar, T., Kamruzzaman, Md., Foth, M., Sabatini-Marques, J., da Costa, E., and Ioppolo, G. (2019), “Can Cities Become Smart without Being Sustainable? A Systematic Review of the Literature”, Sustainable Cities and Society, 45: 348–365.
Yin, R.K. (2009), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, London: SAGE.
Zygiaris, S. (2013), “Smart City Reference Model: Assisting Planners to Conceptualize the Building of Smart City Innovation Ecosystems”, Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 4 (2): 217–231.