Understanding the early development and supportive factors of individual resilience in times of COVID-19

Authors

  • Viktoriya Pisotska LUISS University
  • Luca Giustiniano Luiss University

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.19245/25.05.of.14.05.24

Keywords:

resilience, Wellbeing, work organization, adaptation, COVID-19

Abstract

This study explores how individuals cultivate their psychological resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic—an ongoing adversity worthy of exploration. Drawing on 55 semi-structured interviews, our qualitative research revealed an early pathway towards individual resilience, socioecological factors influencing the development of individual resilience, and lessons learned across the two observed phases - during and after the first COVID-19 lockdown (Europe, March–May 2020). The study shows three early, interrelated phases towards development of individual resilience - reflecting and making sense of what happened, experiencing hope for better life and regaining control in life. It unveils socioecological factors influencing the cultivation of individual resilience at micro, meso and macro levels. Furthermore, the study shows how life lessons learned could reflect the early development of individual resilience. The study contributes to the psychological resilience literature by exploring the early development of resilience over time and different contexts, and the role of socioecological in harnessing resilience.

References

Ashford S. J., Caza B. B., Reid E. M. (2018) “From surviving to thriving in the gig economy: A research agenda for individuals in the new world of work”, Research in Organizational Behavior, 38 (2018): 23–41.

Block .J, Kremen A. M. (1996) “IQ and ego-resiliency: conceptual and empirical connections and separateness”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(2): 349-361.

Boin A., Comfort L. K., Demchak C. C. (2010) “The rise of resilience” In Designing resilience: Preparing for extreme events, Comfort L. K., Boin A., Demchak C. C. (eds), pp.1–12, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Bonanno G. A. (2004) “Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events?”, American Psychologist, 59(1): 20–28.

Bonanno G. A., Galea S., Bucciarelli A., Vlahov D. (2006) “Psychological resilience after disaster: New York City in the aftermath of the September 11th terrorist attack.”, Psychological Science, 17(3): 181–186.

Bonanno G. A., Galea S., Bucciarelli A., Vlahov D. (2007) “What predicts psychological resilience after disaster? The role of demographics, resources, and life stress.”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(5): 671–682.

Brennan M. A. (2008) “Conceptualizing resiliency: An interactional perspective for community and youth development.”, Child Care in Practice 14(1): 55–64.

Brown L., Haines S., Amonoo H. L., Jones C., Woods J., Huffman J. C., Morris M. E. (2021). “Sources of resilience in frontline health professionals during COVID-19.” Healthcare, 9 (12): 1699.

Bruscaglioni L. (2016). “Theorizing in grounded theory and creative abduction.” Quality & Quantity, 50(5): 2009–2024.

Campbell-Sills L., Stein M. B. (2007) “Psychometric analysis and refinement of the Connor–Davidson resilience scale (CD- RISC): Validation of a 10-item measure of resilience.”, Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 20(6): 1019-1028.

Chen R., Sun C., Chen J. J., Jen H. J., Kang X. L., Kao C. C., Chou K. R. (2021). A large‐scale survey on trauma, burnout, and posttraumatic growth among nurses during the COVID‐19 pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 30(1): 102-116.

Connor K. M., Davidson J. R.T. (2003) “Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC).” Depression and Anxiety, 18(2): 76–82.

Corbin J. M. & Strauss A. (1990) “Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria.” Qualitative Sociology, 13(1): 3–21.

Davydov D. M., Stewart R., Ritchie K., Chaudieu I. (2010) “Resilience and mental health.” Clinical Psychology Review, 30(5): 479–495.

Dunn L. B., Iglewicz A., Moutier C. (2008) “A conceptual model of medical student well-being: Promoting resilience and preventing burnout.” Academic Psychiatry, 32(1): 44–53.

Eisenhardt K. M., Graebner M. E. (2007) “Theory building from cases: Opportunities and challenges.” Academy of Management Journal, 50(1): 25–32.

Fisher D. M., Ragsdale J. M., Fisher E. C. (2019) “The importance of definitional and temporal issues in the study of resilience.” Applied Psychology, 68(4): 583–620.

Fisher G., Aguinis H. (2017) “Using theory elaboration to make theoretical advancements.” Organizational Research Methods, 20(3): 438–464.

Fletcher D., Sarkar M. (2013) “Psychological resilience: A review and critique of definitions, concepts, and theory.” European Psychologist, 18(1): 12–23.

Ghahramani S., Lankarani K. B., Yousefi M., Heydari K., Shahabi S., Azmand S. (2021). “A systematic review and meta-analysis of burnout among healthcare workers during COVID-19. “ Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 758849.

Gioia D.A., Corley K. G., Hamilton A. L. (2013) “Seeking qualitative rigor in inductive research: Notes on the Gioia methodology.” Organizational Research Methods, 16(1): 15–31.

Giustiniano L., Cunha M. P., Simpson A. V., Rego A., Clegg S. (2020) “Resilient leadership as paradox work: Notes from COVID-19.” Management and Organization Review, 16(5): 971–975.

Golden S. D., Earp J. A. L. (2012). “Social ecological approaches to individuals and their contexts: twenty years of health education & behavior health promotion interventions.” Health Education & Behavior, 39(3): 364-372.

Grant A. M., Curtayne L., Burton G. (2009) “Executive coaching enhances goal attainment, resilience and workplace well-being: A randomised controlled study.” The Journal of Positive Psychology 4(5): 396–407.

Hartmann S., Weiss M., Newman A., Hoegl M. (2020) “Resilience in the workplace: A multilevel review and synthesis.” Applied Psychology, 69(3): 913–959.

Hartmann S., Weiss M., Hoegl M., Carmeli A. (2021) “How does an emotional culture of joy cultivate team resilience? A sociocognitive perspective.” Journal of Organizational Behavior, 42(3): 313–331.

Huberman A. M., Miles M. B. (1994) “Data management and analysis methods.” In Handbook of qualitative research, Denzin N K, Lincoln Y S (eds), pp. 428–444, Sage Publications.

ILO. (2020) Jobs for peace and resilience. COVID-19 is a threat to peacebuilding in conflict affected nations. Online at https://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_764609/lang--en/index.htm accessed on June 2021.

ILO. (2021) ILO Monitor: COVID-19 and the world of work. Seventh edition updated estimates and analysis. Online at https://ilostat.ilo.org/topics/covid-19/accessed on May 2021.

King D. D., Newman A., Luthans F. (2016) “Not if, but when we need resilience in the workplace.” Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(5): 782–786.

Kossek E. E., Perrigino M. B. (2016) “Resilience: A review using a grounded integrated occupational approach.” Academy of Management Annals 10(1): 729–797.

Lombardi S. Cunha M. P., Giustiniano L. (2021) “Improvising resilience: The unfolding of resilient leadership in COVID-19 times.” International Journal of Hospitality Management, 95, 102904.

Luthans F., Avolio B.J., Walumbwa F. O., Li W. (2005) “The psychological capital of Chinese workers: Exploring the relationship with performance.” Management and Organization Review, 1(2): 249–271.

Luthar S. S., Cicchetti D., Becker B. (2000) “The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work.” Child Development, 71(3): 543–562.

Martínez-Martí M. L., Ruch W. (2017) “Character strengths predict resilience over and above positive affect, self-efficacy, optimism, social support, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.” The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(2): 110–119.

Meneghel I., Borgogni L., Miraglia M., Salanova M., Martínez I. M. (2016). “From social context and resilience to performance through job satisfaction: A multilevel study over time.” Human Relations, 69(11): 2047-2067.

Moenkemeyer G., Hoegl M., Weiss M. (2012) “Innovator resilience potential: A process perspective of individual resilience as influenced by innovation project termination.” Human Relations, 65(5): 627-655.

OECD. (2020) OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19). Building back better: A sustainable, resilient recovery after COVID-19. Online at: https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/building-back-better-a-sustainable-resilient-recovery-after-covid-19-52b869f5/accessed in may 2021.

Ong A. D., Bergeman C. S., Bisconti T. L., Wallace K. A. (2006) “Psychological resilience, positive emotions, and successful adaptation to stress in later life.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(4): 730–749.

Pargament K. I. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research and practice. London: Guilford Press.

Powley E. H. (2009). “Reclaiming resilience and safety: Resilience activation in the critical period of crisis.” Human relations, 62(9): 1289-1326.

Reupert, A. (2017). “A socio-ecological framework for mental health and well-being.” Advances in Mental Health, 15(2): 105-107.

Stallard P., Pereira A. I., Barros L. (2021). Post-traumatic growth during the COVID-19 pandemic in carers of children in Portugal and the UK: cross-sectional online survey. BJPsych Open, 7(1): e37.

UN. (2020) UN/DESA Policy Brief #74: Resilient institutions in times of crisis: Transparency, accountability and participation at the national level key to effective response to COVID-19. Online at: https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/publication/un-desa-policy-brief-74-resilient-institutions-in-times-of-crisis-transparency-accountability-and-participation-at-the-national-level-key-to-effective-response-to-covid-19/ accessed in May 2021.

Wagnild G. M., Young H. M. (1993) “Development and psychometric.” Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2): 165-178.

Waldman D. A., Carmeli A., Halevi M. Y. (2011) “Beyond the red tape: How victims of terrorism perceive and react to organizational responses to their suffering.” Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(7): 938–954.

Williams T. A., Gruber D. A., Sutcliffe K. M., Shepherd D. A., Zhao E.Y. (2017) “Organizational response to adversity: Fusing crisis management and resilience research streams.” Academy of Management Annals, 11(2): 733–769.

Zhang N., Yang S., Jia P. (2022). “Cultivating resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic: A socioecological perspective.” Annual Review of Psychology, 73: 575-598.

Downloads

Published

2024-05-14

How to Cite

Pisotska, V., & Giustiniano, L. (2024). Understanding the early development and supportive factors of individual resilience in times of COVID-19. PuntOorg International Journal, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.19245/25.05.of.14.05.24