‘Lost in Transition’: Some Preliminary Considerations on Voicing Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Discrimination in the Workplace


  • Davide Bizjak University of Naples Federico II




This article proposes a model aimed at considering both voice and inclusion during social and medical transition of transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) people in their workplace. A preliminary theoretical framework is focused on voice and inclusion in organisation. The rationale of this article lies in the difficulties expressed in current research in taking into account TGNC issues in organisation due to lack of empirical evidence. The model proposed in the current work intends to add knowledge on the experiences of TGNC people within their workplaces, especially during the transition process.


Allen, K.R. (1995), “Opening the Classroom Closet: Sexual Orientation and Self-Disclosure”, Family Relations, 44 (2): 136–141.

Bizjak, D. (2018), “Silencing/Voicing Transgender People at Work: An Organizational Perspective”, puntOorg International Journal, 3 (1/2): 5–13.

Boncori, I., Sicca, L.M., and Bizjak, D. (2019), “Transgender and Gender Non-conforming People in the Workplace: Direct and Invisible Discrimination”, in S. Nachmias and V. Caven (eds), Inequality and Organizational Practice, pp. 141–160. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bowen, F., and Blackmon, K. (2003), “Spirals of Silence: The Dynamic Effects of Diversity on Organizational Voice”, Journal of Management Studies, 40 (6): 1393–1417.

Brewster, M.E., Velez, B., DeBlaere, C., and Moradi, B. (2012), “Transgender Individuals’ Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models”, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59: 60–70.

Butler, J. (1999), Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, New York, NY: Routledge.

Collins, J.C., McFadden, C., Rocco, T.S., and Mathis, M.K. (2015), “The Problem of Transgender Marginalization and Exclusion: Critical Actions for Human Resource Development”, Human Resource Development Review, 14 (2): 205–226.

Dentice, D., and Dietert, M. (2015), “Liminal Spaces and the Transgender Experience”, Theory in Action, 8 (2): 69–96.

Grant, J.M., Mottet, L.A., Tanis, J., Harrison, J., Herman, J.L., and Keisling, M. (2011), Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.

Mor Barak, M.E. (2015), “Inclusion Is the Key to Diversity Management, but What Is Inclusion?”, Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 39: 83–88.

Mor Barak, M.E., and Travis, D.J. (2009), “Diversity and Organizational Performance”, in Y. Hasenfeld (ed.), Human Service as Complex Organizations (2nd edn.), pp. 341–378, New York, NY: SAGE.

Morrison, E.W., and Milliken, F.J. (2000), “Organizational Silence: A Barrier to Change and Development in a Pluralistic World”, Academy of Management Review, 25 (4): 706–725.

Ozturk, M.B., and Tatli, A. (2016), “Gender Identity Inclusion in the Workplace: Broadening Diversity Management Research and Practice through the Case of Transgender Employees in the UK”, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27 (8): 781–802.

Pepper, S.M., and Lorah, P. (2008), “Career Issues and Workplace Considerations for the Transsexual Community: Bridging a Gap of Knowledge for Career Counsellors and Mental Health Care Providers”, The Career Development Quarterly, 56: 330–343.

Pinder, C., and Harlos, H. (2001), “Employee Silence: Quiescence and Acquiescence as Responses to Perceived Injustice”, Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, 20: 331–369.

Ragins, B.R. (2008), “Disclosure Disconnects: Antecedents and Consequences of Disclosing Invisible Stigmas Across Life Domains”, Academy of Management Review, 33: 194–215 .

Reingardė, J. (2010), “Heteronormativity and Silenced Sexualities at Work”, Kultūra ir Visuomenė: Socialinių Tyrimų Žurnalas, 1 (1): 83–96.

Richardson, D., and Monro, S. (2012), Sexuality, Equality and Diversity, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Roberson, Q.M., and Stevens, C.K. (2006), “Making Sense of Diversity in the Workplace: Organizational Justice and Language Abstraction in Employees’ Accounts of Diversity-Related Incidents”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (2): 379–391.

Santos, F.M., and Eisenhardt, K. (2005), “Organizational Boundaries and Theories of Organization”, Organization science, 16 (5): 491–508.

Shore, L.M., Randel, A.E., Chung, B.G., Dean, M.A., Holcombe Ehrhart, K., and Singh, G. (2011), “Inclusion and Diversity in Work Groups: A Review and Model for Future Research”, Journal of Management, 37 (4): 1262–1289.

Simpson, R., and Lewis, P. (2005), “An Investigation of Silence and a Scrutiny of Transparency: Re-Examining Gender in Organization Literature through the Concepts of Voice and Visibility”, Human Relations, 58 (10): 1253–1275.

van Dyne, L.A.S., and Botero, I.C. (2003), “Conceptualizing Employee Silence and Employee Voice as Multidimensional Constructs”, Journal of Management Studies, 40 (6): 1359–1392.

Ward, J., and Winstanley, D. (2003), “The Absent Presence: Negative Space within Discourse and the Construction of Minority Sexual Identity in the Workplace”, Human Relations, 56 (10): 1255–1280.

Ward, J., and Winstanley, D. (2005), “Coming Out at Work: Performativity and the Recognition and Renegotiation of Identity”, The Sociological Review, 53 (3): 447–475.




How to Cite

Bizjak, D. (2019). ‘Lost in Transition’: Some Preliminary Considerations on Voicing Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Discrimination in the Workplace. PuntOorg International Journal, 4(1), 49-56. https://doi.org/10.19245/25.05.pij.4.1.6