This is a preview and has not been published. View submission

Sexual Fluidity and Attitudes towards Bisexuality

Authors

  • Serena Sbrana
  • Adelia de Miguel University of La Laguna

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.19245/25.05.pij.OF.05.01.21.3

Keywords:

sexual fluidity, sexual orientation, assessment, bisexuality, gender

Abstract

This research created an instrument to assess sexual fluidity-changes over time in attractions and sexual orientation identity and has examined whether experiencing sexual fluidity is related to specific cognitions, attitudes and beliefs among sexually and non-sexually fluid individuals. Participants (435 Spanish young-adult students, 310 females and 125 males) completed an online form which assessed demographic data, sexual orientation, sexual fluidity, and attitudes towards male and female bisexuality. An empirical sexual-fluidity factor has been isolated: women scored higher than men (d = .68) and bisexual people higher than homosexual (d = 1.74) and heterosexual (d = 1.40) groups. There were gender, sexual orientation and sexual fluidity differences in attitudes towards male and female bisexuality. Women considered male and female bisexuality more stable than men (d = .29 & d = .34); sexual-fluid people showed higher positive attitudes towards male and female bisexuality (d ranged .29 - .51) than the non-sexually fluid group; bisexual individuals scored higher in male and female bisexuality attitudes than heterosexual individuals. This study confirms previous researches which showed that females were more likely than male to have fluid sexuality. Attitudes about bisexuality are not a simple question; they are affected by gender, sexual orientation and sexual fluidity factors.

References

Baumeister, R.F. (2000), “Gender Differences in Erotic Plasticity: The Female Sex Drive Associally Flexible and Responsive”, Psychological Bulletin, 126: 347–374. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.126.3.347.

Baumeister, R.F., and Twenge, J.M. (2002), “Cultural Suppression of Female Sexuality”, Review of General Psychology, 6: 166–203. DOI: 10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.166.

Bennett, K. (1992), “Feminist Bisexuality: A both/and Option for an either/or World”, in E.R. Weise (ed.), Close to Home: Bisexuality and Feminism, 205–231, Seattle, WA: Seal Press.

Bouchard, K.N., Timmers, A.D., and Chivers, M.L. (2015), “Gender-Specificity of Genital Response and Self-Reported Sexual Arousal in Women Endorsing Facets of Bisexuality”, Journal of Bisexuality, 15: 180–203. DOI: 10.1080/15299716.2015.1022924.

Chandra, A., Mosher, W.D., Copen, C., and Sionean, C. (2011), Sexual Behavior, Sexual Attraction, and Sexual Identity in the United States: Data from the 2006–2008 National Survey of Family Growth. National Health Statistics Reports, 36, Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

Chivers, M.L., and Bailey, J.M. (2005), “A Sex Difference in Features That Elicit Genital Response”, Biological Psychology, 70: 61–79. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.12.002.

Chivers, M.L., Riger, G., Latty, E., and Bailey, J.M. (2004), “A Sex Difference in the Specificity of Sexual Arousal”, Psychological Science, 15: 736–744. DOI: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00750.x.

Chivers, M.L., Seto, M.C., and Blanchard, R. (2007), “Gender and Sexual Orientation Differences in Sexual Response to Sexual Activities versus Gender of Actor in Sexual Film”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93: 1108-1121. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.93.6.1108.

Dahlhamer, J.M., Galinsky, A.M, Joestl, S.S., and Ward, B.W. (2014), “Sexual Orientation in the 2013 National Health Interview Survey: A Quality Assessment”, Vital Health Statistics, 2 (169): 1–24.

Diamond, L.M. (2008), Sexual Fluidity: Understanding Women’s Love and Desire, London: Harvard University Press.

Diamond, L.M. (2016), “Sexual Fluidity in Male and Female”. Current Sexual Health Reports, 8 (4): 249–256. DOI: 10.1007/s11930-016-0092-z.

Diamond, L.M., and Savin-Williams, R.C. (2003), “Explaining Diversity in the Development of Same-Sex Sexuality among Young Women”, in L.D. Garnets and D.C. Kimmel (eds), Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Experiences (2nd edn.), 130–148, New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Dickson, N., Roode, N., and Cameron, C. (2013), “Stability and Change in Same-Sex Attraction, Experiences, and Identity by Sex and Age in a New Zealand Birth Cohort”, Archive of Sex Behavior, 42: 753–763. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-012-0063-z.

Eliason, M. (2001), “Bi-Negativity: The Stigma Facing Bisexual Men”, Journal of Bisexuality, 1, 137–154. DOI: 10.1300/J159v01n02_05.

Gobierno de Canarias (2017), Protocolo para el acompañamiento al alumnado Trans y atención a la diversidad de género en los centros educativos sostenidos con fondos públicos de Canarias [Protocol for the Accompainment of Trans Students and Attention to Gender Diversity in Schools Supported by Public Funds of the Canary Islands]. Available online at http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org/educacion/web/ensenanzas/atencion-a-la-diversidad/protocolo_alumnado_trans.html (last accessed: December 20, 2017).

Gorman, B.K., Denney, J.T., Dowdy, H., and Medeiros, R.A. (2015), “A New Piece of the Puzzle: Sexual Orientation, Gender, and Physical Health Status”, Demography, 52: 1357–1382. DOI: 10.1007/s13524-015-0406-1.

Herek, G.M. (2002), “Heterosexuals’ Attitudes toward Bisexual Men and Women in the United States”, Journal of Sex Research, 39: 264–274. DOI: 10.1080/00224490209552150.

Israel, T., and Mohr, J.J. (2004), “Attitudes toward Bisexual Women and Men: Current Research, Future Directions”, Journal of Bisexuality, 4: 117–134. DOI: 10.1300/J159v04n01_09.

Katz-Wise, S.L., and Hyde, J.S. (2015), “Sexual Fluidity Related Attitudes and Beliefs among Young Adults with a Same-Gender”, Archive of Sexual Behaviour, 44: 1459–1470. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-014-0420-1.

Kinnish, K.K., Strassberg, D.S., and Turner, C.W. (2005), “Sex Differences in the Flexibility of Sexual Orientation: A Multidimensional Retrospective Assessment”, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34: 173–183. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-005-1795-9.

Kuhle, B., and Radtke, S. (2013), “Born Both Ways: The Alloparenting Hypothesis for Sexual Fluidity in Women”, Evolutionary Psychology, 11: 304–323. DOI: 10.1177/147470491301100202.

Mahalik, J.R., Locke, B.D., Ludlow, L.H., Diemer, M.A., Scott, R.P.J., Gottfried, M., and Freitas, G. (2003), “Development of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory”, Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 4: 3–25. DOI: 10.1037/1524-9220.4.1.3.

Mock, S.E, and Eibach, R.P. (2012), “Stability and Change in Sexual Orientation Identity over a 10-Year Period in Adulthood”, Archive of Sexual Behavior, 41: 641–648. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-011-9761-1.

Mohr, J.J., and Rochlen, A.B. (1999), “Measuring Attitudes Regarding Bisexuality in Lesbian, Gay Male and Heterosexual Populations”, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46: 353–369. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.46.3.353.

Mulick, P.S., and Wright, L.W. (2002), “Examining the Existence of Biphobia in the Heterosexual and Homosexual Populations”, Journal of Bisexuality, 2: 45–64. DOI: 10.1300/J159v02n04_03.

Ott, M.Q., Corliss, H.L., Wypij, D., Rosario, M., and Austin, S.B. (2011), “Stability and Change in Self-Reported Sexual Orientation Identity in Young People: Application of Mobility Metrics”, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40: 519-532. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-010-9691-3.

Pirlott, A.G., and Neuberg, S.L. (2014), “Sexual Prejudice: Avoid in Gun Wanted Sexual Interest?”, Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5: 92–101. DOI: 10.1177/1948550613486674.

Rieger, G., and Savin-Williams, R.C. (2012), “The Eyes Have It: Sex and Sexual Orientation Differences in Pupil Dilation Patterns”, PLOS ONE, 7: 402–456. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040256.

Rieger, G., Chivers, M.L., and Badley, J.M. (2005), “Sexual Arousal Patterns of Bisexual Men”, Psychological Science, 16: 579–584. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01578.x.

Savin-Williams, R.C., Joyner, K., and Rieger, G. (2012), “Prevalence and Stability of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation Identity during Young Adulthood”, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41: 103–110. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-012-9913-y.

Twenge, J.M., Sherman, R.A., and Wells, B.E. (2015), “Changes in American Adults Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes, 1972–2012”, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44: 2273–2285. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-016-0769-4.

Twenge, J.M., Sherman, R.A., and Wells, B.E. (2016), “Changes in American Adults Reported Same-Sex Sexual Experiences and Attitudes 1973–2014”, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45: 1713–1730. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-016-0769-4.

Weiss, J.T. (2004), “GL vs. BT: The Archaeology of Biphobia and Transphobia within the U.S. Gay and Lesbian Community”, Journal of Bisexuality, 3: 25–55. DOI: 10.1300/J159v03n03_02.

Yost, M.R., and Thomas, G.D. (2012), “Gender and Binegativity: Men’s and Women’s Attitudes toward Male and Female Bisexuals”, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41: 691–702. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-011-9767-8.

Zivony, A., and Lobell, L. (2014), “The Invisible Stereotypes of Bisexual Men”, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43: 1165–1176. DOI: 10.1007/s10508-014-0263-9.

Downloads

How to Cite

Sbrana, S., & de Miguel, A. Sexual Fluidity and Attitudes towards Bisexuality. PuntOorg International Journal. https://doi.org/10.19245/25.05.pij.OF.05.01.21.3

Issue

Section

Articles